Wind Energy Potential
Myanmar has exploitable wind energy potential on highlands and in coastal areas such as Tanintharyi Region, Chin State, Rakhine State, Mon State with an estimated total potential of 365.1 TWh/year as reported by Potential of Renewable Energy in Greater Mekong Subregion by NEDO (1997). Fig. 1 shows mean wind speed variation over Myanmar produced for the year 2010 to 2017. As seen in the Figure, average annual wind speed at 100 m hub height is 5.51 m/s with the strongest wind in Tanintharyi Region, Chin State, Rakhine State, Mon State, Ayeyarwaddy, Yangon, Mandalay and Magway Region. However, compared to other kinds of green energy resources such as hydropower accounting 59.2% of total generation , promotion of harnessing energy from the wind is still very limited in Myanmar although some projects have been planned.
Figure 1. Wind speed profile in Myanmar at 100m from ground level
Current Installed Capacity of Wind Energy
Figure 2 shows current status of wind energy in Myanmar. As can be seen in the figure, some functioning wind turbines at small scale are observed in Mandalay Region but not at commercial scale. Moreover, the wind turbine in Chaung Tha in the Ayeyarwaddy region is also reported not functional. One notable progress in wind energy is Infraco Asia and Magway Region Government have already conducted feasibility study of wind turbine in the Chauk district. In the Magway Region, two feasibility sites have been reported by ICM for energy generation. Altogether there is total planned installation of 4082 MW. Although there are some progress, overall, wind energy development in Myanmar is still very limited. Therefore, in line with the National Energy Policy, wind energy could be considered and it is also included in the drafted renewable energy policy of Myanmar.
Figure 2. Current installed and planned capacity of wind energy
Figure 3 shows the results of respondents’ perception on the current status of important multidimensional factors for the deployment of wind energy. As seen in the figure, for the wind energy development, existing policy and regulatory framework are not sufficient since the result is lower than 50% while research, infrastructure and human resources, technological and economic dimensions are second critical factor to be improved for deployment of wind energy. Social and environmental factors have yet to be improved also since their results are 60%. Overall, for the development and deployment of wind energy in Myanmar, all dimensions are still need to be considered.
Figure 3. Response to readiness of dimensions for wind energy development
Proposed Driving Factors to be considered in Renewable Energy Policy
Fig. 4 shows responses on the importance of driving factors for wind energy deployment in Myanmar. As seen in the figure, the ratings for all driving factors are very strong with over 80%. Therefore, all driving factors are needed to be considered in the policy actions for deployment of wind energy in Myanmar.
Figure 4. Driving factors for wind energy deployment