Hydropower is the main share in current energy mix of Myanmar which is mainly generated by Law Pi Ta hydropower plant (run-of-the-river type) and Ye Ywa hydroelectric power plant (storage type). However, there are still untapped hydropower resources in Myanmar as reported by Afia Dim , (regenerated in Fig. 1). For the run-of-the-river type, it is estimated that there is 82774 MW resource capacity with 45% share by small scale, 15% by medium scale and 15% by large scale.
Figure 1. Hydropower Resource in Myanmar (Run-of-the-river type)
Figure 2. Variation of Hydropower Resource in States and Regions in Myanmar (Run-of-the-river type)
Figure 2 shows hydropower resource variation in states and regions in Myanmar. As seen in the Figure, 57% of hydropower resource potential is in Kachin state which is the uppermost and northernmost state in Myanmar. This is noticeable since the main river in Myanmar, Ayeyarwaddy originated in Kachin State. The second largest share of hydropower potential is in Shan State.
Current Installed Capacity of Hydropower
As compared to the installed capacity of mini-, small and medium scale hydropower of 235.65 MW as shown in Fig. 5, there is significant hydropower resource potential still being untapped. However, there is major public concern about large scale hydropower in Myanmar. Therefore, small and medium run-of-the-river type should be the focus of Myanmar energy mix for the future and it is reflected in the second draft of renewable energy policy of Myanmar.
Figure 3. Current installed capacity of mini, small and medium hydropower in Myanmar
Figure 4 shows the results of respondents’ perception on the current status of important multidimensional factors for the deployment of hydropower. As seen in the figure, like other renewable energy sector, for the hydropower development, policy and regulatory framework is the most critical dimension to be considered. However, it must be noted here also that existing policy and regulatory framework for hydropower is quite sufficient and stronger than other sectors as it rating is more than 50%. Research, infrastructure and human resources, are second critical factor to be improved for deployment of hydropower. Again for hydropower, technological, economic, social and environmental factors are sufficient since their ratings are greater than 60%.
Figure 4. Response to readiness of dimensions for hydropower deployment
Proposed Driving Factors to be considered in Renewable Energy Policy
Fig. 5 shows responses on the importance of driving factors for hydropower deployment in Myanmar. As seen in the figure, the ratings for all driving factors are very strong with 100%. Therefore, all driving factors in the figure are needed to be considered in the policy actions for deployment of hydropower energy in Myanmar.
Figure 5. Driving factors for hydropower deployment