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Overview

Overview

Overview of Renewable Energy

Estimated energy demand in Myanmar is increasing and it is expected to rise to 14.542 GW by 2030 as published by the Ministry of Electric Power as in Figure 1. In order to meet the growing demand, power generation is planned with the energy mix by 2030 shown in Figure 2. It can be clearly seen that renewable energy is greatly emphasized in the energy mix of the country with three resources prioritized: small- and medium-scale hydropower (32%), solar and wind resources (9%).

Figure 1. Energy demand of Myanmar by 2030 (Source: Ministry of Electric Power, Myanmar)

Figure 2. Energy mix of Myanmar by 2030 (Source: Ministry of Electric Power, Myanmar)

Figure 3. Current multi-dimensional factors for renewable energy deployment

Table 1. Summary of resource potential and installed and planned capacity of four renewable resources
Resource potential Installed and planned capacity
Solar PV 748 MW/m2a 1,595 MW
Wind Energy 365 TWh/year 4,082 MW
Biomass energy (gasification) 95 TWh 8 MW
Hydropower (mini, small and medium) 37,248 MW (small)
12,416 MW (medium)
236 MW

Table 1 shows summary of estimated resource potentials and installed capacity of solar, wind, biomass and small and medium hydropower. As seen in the Table, the installed capacity is very limited compared to resource potentials for all sectors. Therefore, appropriate and effective policy and planning is necessary to speed up renewable energy deployment in Myanmar. And this should be done based on properly collected evidences on the critical factors that should be considered from five multidimensional points of view: (i) research, infrastructure and curriculum, (ii) technological, (iii) policy and regulatory framework, (iv) social and environmental, (v) economic.

The survey questionnaires were prepared for renewable energy sectors of interest, with focus on different factors under each dimension. Questionnaires were then distributed to public and private sector as well as non-profit organization. Their responses were analyzed to evaluate critical factors that should be considered for faster renewable energy deployment and they are discussed in the next section.


Based on questionnaire survey of different stakeholders: focal departments, private companies, universities, non-governmental organizations, this report has revealed critical dimensions and factors in each dimension.
To deploy renewable energy in Myanmar appropriately and effectively, the priority of dimensions that should be considered are as follows:

Table 2. Proposed order of priority for the dimensions for deployment of renewable energy
Dimension Order of prioritization
Policy and regulatory framework 1
Research, infrastructure and human resources 2
Technological 3
Economic 4
Social and environmental 5

 

  1. Overall, emergence of aggressive policy is first and foremost important for solar, wind and biomass energy sectors. For hydropower deployment, current policy is quite sufficient but it can still be improved further.
  2. Second most critical dimension that should be considered is research, infrastructure and capacity building of human resources necessary for all four renewable energy sectors.
  3. Technological dimensional factors are sufficient for solar, hydropower and biomass. However, for wind energy sector, technological dimensional factors are still necessary to be considered.
  4. From the perspective of economic dimension, solar and hydropower are quite sufficient. However, again for wind energy sector, economic dimensional factors are still necessary to be considered.
  5. Additionally, for solar energy sector, the only dimension that has to be considered critically is policy and regulatory framework.
  6. For hydropower sector, all dimensions are somewhat sufficient and priority should be set on the policy and regulatory framework.
  7. For wind energy sector, all dimensions are critical to be considered except the social and environmental dimension.

Table 2 shows critical factors in each dimension to be considered in the renewable energy policy and action plan for the four sectors. Factors in Priority 1 should be considered critically for deployment of renewable energy. Factors in Priority 2 should be considered as well

Table 3. Critical factors to be considered for depolyment of renewable energy
Solar energy Wind energy Biomass energy Hydropower
Research, infrastructure, curriculum and laboratory facilities Priority 1
  1. Testing and certification centers
  2. Training centers
  3. Curriculum and laboratory facilities
  1. Testing and certification centers
  2. Skilled workers
  3. Training centers
  4. Curriculum and laboratory facilities
  5. Research infrastructure
  1. Testing and certification centers
  2. Training centers
  3. Skilled workers
  1. Testing and certification centers
  2. Training centers
  3. Curriculum and laboratory facilities
Priority 2
  1. Research infrastructure
  2. Local infrastructure
  3. Skilled workers
  4. Technicians
  1. Local infrastructure
  2. Technicians
  1. Research infrastructure
  2. Local infrastructure
  3. Skilled workers
  4. Technicians
  5. Curriculum and Labs
  1. Research infrastructure
  2. Local infrastructure
  3. Skilled workers
Technology Priority 1
  1. Operations and maintenance
  2. National technical standards
  1. Operations and maintenance issues
  2. National technical standards
  3. Technical risks and limitations
  1. Technical limitations
  2. Interfacing equipment
  3. Technical standards
  1. Technical risks
  2. Operations and maintenance
Priority 2
  1. Availability of components locally
  2. Technical risks
  3. Technical limitations
  4. Power interfacing equipment
  5. Logistics
  6. Technology innovation
  1. Availability of components locally
  2. Power interfacing equipment
  3. Logistics
  4. Technology innovation
  1. Availability of components locally
  2. Technical risks
  3. Operations and maintenance
  4. Ease of logistics
  5. Technology innovation
  1. Availability of components locally
  2. Technical limitations
  3. Interfacing equipment
  4. Logistics
  5. National technical standards
  6. Technology innovation
Policy and regulatory framework Priority 1
  1. National policy
  2. Coordination mechanism and linkages
  3. Regulatory framework
  4. Land acquisition
  1. National policy
  2. Coordination mechanism
  3. Regulatory framework
  4. Land acquisition
  1. National policy
  2. Regulatory framework
  1. Land acquisition
  2. Coordination mechanism
  3. Regulatory framework
Priority 2
  1. Policy-making experts
  2. Cooperation of state and regional governments
  3. Permit and licenses attainment
  4. Stakeholders’ input
  1. Policy-making experts
  2. Cooperation of state and regional governments
  3. Permit and licenses attainment
  4. Stakeholders’ input
  1. Policy-making experts
  2. Cooperation of state and regional governments
  3. Coordination mechanism and linkages
  4. Permit and licenses attainment
  5. Stakeholders’ input
  1. National Policy
  2. Policy-making experts
  3. Proper
  4. Land acquisition
  5. Stakeholders’ input
Social and environmental Priority 1
Priority 2
  1. Public awareness
  2. Awareness on environmental impact
  3. Community engagement
  1. Public awareness
  2. Awareness on environmental impact
  3. Community engagement
  1. Public awareness
  2. Awareness on environmental impact
  3. Community engagement
  1. Public awareness
  2. Community engagement
Economic Priority 1
  1. Business partnership
  2. Public-private partnership
  3. Need for local market
  4. Market information
  1. Need for local market
Priority 2
  1. Business partnership
  2. Public-private partnership
  3. Private sector participation
  4. Need for local market
  5. Market information
  1. Private sector participation
  1. Business partnership
  2. Public-private partnership
  3. Private sector participation
  4. Need for local market
  5. Market information
  1. Business partnership
  2. Public-private partnership
  3. Private sector participation
  4. Local market information

The following conclusions can be drawn based on the results.

  1. For research, infrastructure and human resources development, training and testing centers are critical for the development of all four sectors. For wind energy and biomass sectors, skilled workers are also critical. Curriculum and laboratory facilities are critical for all sectors except biomass energy.
  2. Research and local infrastructure are important factors to be considered in Priority 2 for all sectors except for wind energy for which research infrastructure is in Priority 1.
  3. For policy dimension, national policy is the critical factor for solar, wind and biomass energy sectors. However, for hydropower, need of policy is only in Priority 2.
  4. Other critical policy dimensional factors are coordination mechanism and linkages, regulatory framework and land acquisition for solar, wind and hydropower sectors, however for biomass energy sector, regulatory framework and land acquisition are not critical.
  5. For social factors, only public awareness is needed to be increased for wind energy as Priority 1. For priority 2, public awareness, awareness on environmental impact and community engagement should be considered.
  6. For economic factors, there is no critical factors to be considered in Priority 1 for solar and biomass energy sectors.
  7. In contrary to this, wind energy sector is quite different in that there are several critical economic factors in Priority 1 to be considered: business partnership, public-private partnership, need for local market and market information are critical factors.
  8. For hydropower sector, the only critical factor in Priority 1 is need of local market.

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